我想要一篇关于 纽约 介绍的英文文章

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Other noteworthy buildings include City Hall (160 2-1811), a Federal-style building with French Renaissance detail; the Seagram Building (1958), an office tower clad in bronze and bronze-colored glass; and Grant’s Tomb (1897), the tomb of President Ulysses S. Grant and his wife. Notable religious structures include Saint Patrick’s Cathedral (1879), the seat of the Roman Catholic archdiocese of New York and the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine (begun 1892), the largest Gothic-style cathedral in the world.

The borough’s many attractions include the world-famous Bronx Zoo, Yankee Stadium, and the New York Botanical Garden. The Bronx also includes two of the largest middle-income housing projects in the United States. Parkchester, built between 1938 and 1942 for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, houses 40,000 people in apartment buildings arranged along well-planned circular drives. Co-op City is even larger, with 35 apartment towers, 236 townhouses, and more than 60 ,000 residents. Built between 1968 and 1970 on marshland near the Hutchinson River Parkway, it is the largest single housing complex in the nation.

Because of its huge size, its concentrated wealth, and its mixture of people from around the world, New York City offers its residents and visitors a staggering array of cultural riches and educational opportunities. The city is the world’s leading center for performing arts and its museums contain a wide range of artistic and historical subjects. A mixture of cultures from around the world is reflected in the street festivals and ethnic celebrations that take place year-round. In addition, more than 60 institutions of higher education operate in New York City, including some of the nation’s more prestigious centers of learning.

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New York's boroughs are still divided up into neighborhoods, and moving from one to another is still rather like moving from one country to another.

New York is an impressive place for those who love the arts.Its museums and numerous art galleries, the concerts, opera and ballet performed at the Lincoln Center, the theaters on and off Broadway and in Greenwich Village, make it one of the world's centers of the arts.

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None of which is to suggest that New York is a conventionally pleasing city. Take a walk in Manhattan beside Central Park, notably its east side, past the city's richest apartments and best museums, and keep walking: within a dozen or so blocks you find yourself in the lower reaches of Spanish Harlem. The shock could hardly be more extreme. The city is constantly like this, with glaring, in-your-face wealth juxtaposed with urban problems - poverty, the drug trade, homelessness - that have a predictably high profile. Things have definitely changed during the nineties, especially in the recent, Mayor Guiliani years. Crime figures are at their lowest in years and are still dropping (statistically, New York is now one of the country's safest big cities), and renewal plans have finally begun to undo years of urban neglect. But for all its new clean-cut image New York remains a unique place – one you'll want to return to again and again.

The Bronx

Meanwhile, the black proportion of the New York population, which reached 20 percent in the colonial period and declined to less than 2 percent in the 1870s, began a slow rise thereafter. According to the 60 0 census, whites make up 44.7 percent of the city’s population; blacks, 26.6 percent; Asians, 9.8 percent; Native Americans, 0.5 percent; Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, 0.1 percent; and people of mixed heritage or not reporting race, 18.3 percent. Hispanics, who may be of any race, are 27 percent of the population. By the late 1990s, more than 120 languages were spoken in the city’s schools, and there were dozens of ethnic churches, political organizations, cultural festivals, and parades, as well as scores of foreign-language newspapers, magazines, and television and radio stations. Although rivalries among the various groups could be intense, the very diversity of the city permitted immigrants to mingle more easily than in most other parts of the nation.

Manhattan is the center of New York’s cultural life. Numerous stage and motion picture theaters are located around Broadway in Midtown, which includes Times Square. The borough is the home of prominent music and dance organizations, such as the New York City Opera Company, the Metropolitan Opera Association, the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, American Ballet Theatre, and the New York City Ballet.

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Manhattan, or New York County, is the smallest of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough consists principally of the island of Manhattan, but also includes Governors Island, Randalls Island, Wards Island, Roosevelt Island, U Thant Island, and Marble Hill, a small enclave on the edge of the Bronx mainland. Its land area is 59.5 sq km (23 sq mi). Manhattan’s population peaked in 1910 with 2.3 million people, after which it began a slow decline to 1.4 million in 1960 . Since then, the population has again begun to increase, reaching 1,537,195 in 60 0.

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I 对不起,选的文章长了点.怎么让介绍纽约不能是长的.

Manhattan is the glittering heart of the metropolis. It is the site of virtually all of the hundreds of skyscrapers that are the symbol of the city. Among the more famous of these are the Empire State Building (1931), the Chrysler Building (1960 ), and Citicorp Center (1977). (The 110-story twin towers of the World Trade Center were also among New York's famous skyscrapers until they were destroyed in a terrorist attack in 60 1.) Manhattan is also the oldest, densest, and most built-up part of the entire urbanized region.

Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Manhattan is New York, whereas Manhattan is just one of New York's five bor oughs. It is not the largest.The Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens are now larger than Manhattan, leaving only far away Richmond, on the other side of the Verrazano Narrows, with a smaller popula tion.These four boroughs have been called the“bedrooms” of Manhattan, because most of their residents work in Manhattan.

Brooklyn is the second largest and most populous of the five boroughs. It is located on the southwestern tip of Long Island west of Queens and situated across the Upper Bay and the East River from Manhattan. The borough has a land area of 182.9 sq km (70.6 sq mi). Brooklyn had 2,465,326 residents in 60 0, more than any other U.S. city, with the exception of the entire city of New York and the cities of Los Angeles and Chicago. Indeed, as a separate municipality before 1898, it was the third largest city in the United States.

Staten Island is the third largest and least populous of the five boroughs. It is located at the juncture of Upper New York Bay and Lower New York Bay. The island is physically closer to New Jersey, to which it is connected by three bridges, than to the rest of New York City, to which it is connected only by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and the world-famous Staten Island Ferry. Staten Island encompasses 151.5 sq km (58.5 sq mi). The southernmost of the five boroughs, Staten Island had 443,728 inhabitants in 60 0, or about 5 percent of the population of the entire city.

Half a century later, the city still contained 2 million foreign-born residents (including 517,000 Russians and 460 ,000 Italians) and an even larger number of persons of foreign parentage. And at the end of the 20th century, the pattern remained the same. In 1996 the U.S. Census Bureau reported that more than 11 out of every 20 New Yorkers were immigrants or the children of immigrants. Nearly half of all Bronx residents and one-third of Manhattan’s were Hispanic and nearly one-fifth of the population of Queens was Asian-American. Researchers estimated that immigrants would make up about 33 percent of the city’s population in 60 0, approaching the 20th-century peak of about 40 percent, reached in 1910.

The city also has more straightforward pleasures. There are the different ethnic neighborhoods of Lower Manhattan, from Chinatown to the Jewish Lower East Side and ever diminishing Little Italy; and the artsy concentrations in SoHo, TriBeCa, and the East and West Village. There is the architecture of corporate Manhattan and the more residential Upper East and West Side districts (the whole city reads like an illustrated history of modern design); and there is the art, which affords weeks of wandering in the Metropolitan and Modern Art Museums and countless smaller collections. You can eat anything, at any time, cooked in any style; drink in any kind of company; sit through any number of obscure movies. The established arts - dance, theater, music - are superbly catered for, and although the contemporary music scene is perhaps not as vital or original as in, say, London or Los Angeles, New York's clubs are varied and exciting, if rarely inexpensive. And for the avid consumer, the choice of shops is vast, almost numbingly exhaustive in this heartland of the great capitalist dream.

The neighborhoods of Queens have a strong sense of individual identity. Some are heavily industrial, like Long Island City, Maspeth, and College Point; others—like Douglaston, Forest Hill Gardens, and Kew Gardens—are suburban-style enclaves of the well-to-do. Major ethnic concentrations include the Greeks in Astoria; the Irish in Woodside; the Italians in Maspeth and Ridgewood; African-Americans in Hollis, Cambria Heights, St. Albans, and South Jamaica; and Jews in Forest Hills. Large numbers of Chinese and Koreans live in Queens, with particularly heavy concentrations in Flushing, Jackson Heights, Corona, and Elmhurst.

Queens is the largest of the five boroughs. Covering 282.9 sq km (109.2 sq mi) at the western end of Long Island, Queens is separated from Brooklyn by Newtown Creek and from the rest of the city by the East River and Long Island Sound. It stretches to the Atlantic Ocean on the south and borders Nassau County on the east. It is overwhelmingly residential and is probably one of the most ethnically diverse communities in the world. In 60 0 Queens had 2,229,379 residents and was second in population only to Brooklyn among the five boroughs.

Introduction

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Other attractions include the Jacques Marchais Center of Tibetan Art and the Staten Island Zoo. A memorial to Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi, who lived on Staten Island in the 1860 s, is located in the borough.

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New York City has long been unusual because of its sheer size. Even before 1775, when its population was never more than 25,000, it ranked among the five leading cities in the colonies. It surpassed Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by 1810 to become the largest city in the United States, and in 1860 it passed Mexico City, Mexico, to become the largest in the western hemisphere. By 1960 it was the largest city in the world. In the 1960 s the metro region was surpassed in total size by Tokyo, Japan; Mexico City; and São Paolo, Brazil. Yet with 21.2 million people, the New York City region remains an urban agglomeration of almost unimaginable size. For example, in 60 3, when the population of the city itself was 8.1 million, each of its five boroughs was large enough to have been an important city in its own right, with populations exceeding those of many major U.S. cities.

III

Located in the southeastern part of New York State just east of northern New Jersey, the city developed at the point where the Hudson and Passaic rivers mingle with the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound. The harbor consists of the Upper Bay (an arm of the Atlantic Ocean) as well as the East River and the various waterways that border the city. Its harbor is one of the largest and finest in the world and is ice-free in all seasons.

Unlike most American cities, which make up only a part of a particular county, New York is made up of five separate counties, which are called boroughs. Originally the city included only the borough of Manhattan, located on an island between the Hudson and East rivers. In 1898 a number of surrounding communities were incorporated into the city as the boroughs of Queens, Brooklyn, the Bronx and Staten Island. The Bronx is the only borough on the mainland of the United States. Manhattan and Staten Island are surrounded by water, while Queens and Brooklyn are part of Long Island.

Staten Island

Brooklyn

Half a century later, the city still contained 2 million foreign-born residents (including 517,000 Russians and 460 ,000 Italians) and an even larger number of persons of foreign parentage. And at the end of the 20th century, the pattern remained the same. In 1996 the U.S. Census Bureau reported that more than 11 out of every 20 New Yorkers were immigrants or the children of immigrants. Nearly half of all Bronx residents and one-third of Manhattan’s were Hispanic and nearly one-fifth of the population of Queens was Asian-American. Researchers estimated that immigrants would make up about 33 percent of the city’s population in 60 0, approaching the 20th-century peak of about 40 percent, reached in 1910.

New York纽约

Queens

Brooklyn is the home of such major cultural institutions as the Brooklyn Museum, the Brooklyn Academy of Music, and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Coney Island is well known for its beaches and amusement parks. Prospect Park, a landscaped area of broad drives and wooded hills, contains a restored carousel dating from 1912 and the Lefferts Homestead, a Dutch colonial farmhouse dating from 1783.

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New York City is the most beguiling place there is. You may not think so at first - for the city is admittedly mad, the epitome in many ways of all that is wrong in modern America. But spend even a week here and it happens - the pace, the adrenaline take hold, and the shock gives way to myth. Walking through the city streets is an experience, the buildings like icons to the modern age, and above all to the power of money. Despite all the hype, the movie-image sentimentalism, Manhattan - the central island and the city's real core - has massive romance: whether it's the flickering lights of the midtown skyscrapers as you speed across the Queensboro bridge, the 4am half-life in Greenwich Village, or just wasting the morning on the Staten Island ferry, you really would have to be made of stone not to be moved by it all.

The Bronx is the fourth largest and the northernmost of the five boroughs, and the only one on the American mainland. Even so, it is surrounded by water on three sides: Long Island Sound on the east, the Harlem and East rivers on the south, and Hudson River on the west. Encompassing 109 sq km (42 sq mi), it had 1,332,660 inhabitants in 60 0.

New York (city), the largest city in the United States, the home of the United Nations, and the center of global finance, communications, and business. New York City is unusual among cities because of its high residential density, its extraordinarily diverse population, its hundreds of tall office and apartment buildings, its thriving central business district, its extensive public transportation system, and its more than 60 distinct neighborhoods. The city’s concert houses, museums, galleries, and theaters constitute an ensemble of cultural richness rivaled by few cities. In 60 0 the population of the city of New York was 8,008,278; the population of the metropolitan region was 21,199,865.

Queens

New York is a city of bridges and tunnels, for both Manhattan and Richmond are islands and the city as a whole has a waterfront of 520 miles.

Brooklyn retains a strong separate identity. It has an important central business district and dozens of varied and clearly identifiable neighborhoods, including Bedford-Stuyvesant, the largest black community in the United States, and Williamsburg, Crown Heights, and Borough Park, all of which have large populations of Orthodox Jews.

Manhattan

Culture and Education

The narrow canyon of Wall Street, right down on the tip of Manhattan, is the center of New York's business world, whose power full influence is felt by countries everywhere.New York has what many people consider to be the finest daily newspaper in the English language--the New York Times.

Largely residential, the Bronx includes dozens of vibrant neighborhoods. Fieldston is particularly elegant, with great stone houses set among spacious lawns and privately-maintained streets, while Belmont has become the city’s most authentically Italian section. The areas along Pelham Parkway and the northern reaches of the Grand Concourse are particularly prized, because the apartment buildings are well kept and the public parks are easily accessible. City Island retains the charm of a small fishing village.

Staten Island is the third largest and least populous of the five boroughs. It is located at the juncture of Upper New York Bay and Lower New York Bay. The island is physically closer to New Jersey, to which it is connected by three bridges, than to the rest of New York City, to which it is connected only by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and the world-famous Staten Island Ferry. Staten Island encompasses 151.5 sq km (58.5 sq mi). The southernmost of the five boroughs, Staten Island had 443,728 inhabitants in 60 0, or about 5 percent of the population of the entire city.

New York City has long been unusual because of its sheer size. Even before 1775, when its population was never more than 25,000, it ranked among the five leading cities in the colonies. It surpassed Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by 1810 to become the largest city in the United States, and in 1860 it passed Mexico City, Mexico, to become the largest in the western hemisphere. By 1960 it was the largest city in the world. In the 1960 s the metro region was surpassed in total size by Tokyo, Japan; Mexico City; and São Paolo, Brazil. Yet with 21.2 million people, the New York City region remains an urban agglomeration of almost unimaginable size. For example, in 60 3, when the population of the city itself was 8.1 million, each of its five boroughs was large enough to have been an important city in its own right, with populations exceeding those of many major U.S. cities.

The five boroughs of New York City together cover 786 sq km (60 3 sq mi). The urbanized area, however, includes 28 adjacent counties in New York state, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. Together, they make up the New York metropolitan region, which in 60 0 housed about 8 percent of the national population on about 0.2 percent of the land area of the contiguous 48 states. Moreover, New York stands at the center of the urbanized northeastern seaboard, which contained about 60 million people in the late 1990s.

Parts of the Bronx, however, fell victim to decay and abandonment, especially between 1970 and 1960 , when the population of the borough fell by 20 percent. The low point occurred in 1976, when future U.S. president Jimmy Carter compared the South Bronx to the bombed-out German city of Dresden after World War II (1939-1945). Since 1960 the process has again reversed and self-help groups have begun to rehabilitate most of the most devastated blocks.

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New York has a temperate climate with annual precipitation of 1,60 mm (47 in) per year. The temperature ranges between 41°C (106° F) and –24° C (–11° F), but the Atlantic Ocean tends to moderate weather extremes in the city. It is about the same latitude as Naples, Italy. Although the Dutch founded the city in 1624 and called it Fort Amsterdam and then New Amsterdam, the English captured the settlement in 1664 and renamed it New York, after the Duke of York, who later became James II of England.

Parts of the Bronx, however, fell victim to decay and abandonment, especially between 1970 and 1960 , when the population of the borough fell by 20 percent. The low point occurred in 1976, when future U.S. president Jimmy Carter compared the South Bronx to the bombed-out German city of Dresden after World War II (1939-1945). Since 1960 the process has again reversed and self-help groups have begun to rehabilitate most of the most devastated blocks.

Queens is the home of Shea Stadium, Aqueduct Racetrack, the National Tennis Center, and both LaGuardia and John F. Kennedy airports. Queens hosted the World’s Fairs of 1939 and 1964. Queens has more than 6,60 acres of parkland, almost as much as the other four boroughs combined, and it has 16 km (10 mi) of beaches along the Atlantic Ocean. Queens is known for its numerous and enormous cemeteries. For example, Calvary Cemetery is the burial site of 2.5 million persons, more than any other burial ground in the United States.

Manhattan

Staten Island

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Other noteworthy buildings include City Hall (160 2-1811), a Federal-style building with French Renaissance detail; the Seagram Building (1958), an office tower clad in bronze and bronze-colored glass; and Grant’s Tomb (1897), the tomb of President Ulysses S. Grant and his wife. Notable religious structures include Saint Patrick’s Cathedral (1879), the seat of the Roman Catholic archdiocese of New York and the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine (begun 1892), the largest Gothic-style cathedral in the world.

New York has been among the most ethnically diverse cities in the world since the 1640s, when fewer than 1,000 total residents spoke more than 15 languages. Between 1860 and 1919, more than 23 million Europeans immigrated to the United States. At least 17 million of them disembarked in New York. No one knows how many remained there, but as early as 1860 , more than half the city’s working population was foreign-born, providing New York with the largest immigrant labor force on earth.

Queens is the largest of the five boroughs. Covering 282.9 sq km (109.2 sq mi) at the western end of Long Island, Queens is separated from Brooklyn by Newtown Creek and from the rest of the city by the East River and Long Island Sound. It stretches to the Atlantic Ocean on the south and borders Nassau County on the east. It is overwhelmingly residential and is probably one of the most ethnically diverse communities in the world. In 60 0 Queens had 2,229,379 residents and was second in population only to Brooklyn among the five boroughs.

Largely residential, the Bronx includes dozens of vibrant neighborhoods. Fieldston is particularly elegant, with great stone houses set among spacious lawns and privately-maintained streets, while Belmont has become the city’s most authentically Italian section. The areas along Pelham Parkway and the northern reaches of the Grand Concourse are particularly prized, because the apartment buildings are well kept and the public parks are easily accessible. City Island retains the charm of a small fishing village.

Meanwhile, the black proportion of the New York population, which reached 20 percent in the colonial period and declined to less than 2 percent in the 1870s, began a slow rise thereafter. According to the 60 0 census, whites make up 44.7 percent of the city’s population; blacks, 26.6 percent; Asians, 9.8 percent; Native Americans, 0.5 percent; Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, 0.1 percent; and people of mixed heritage or not reporting race, 18.3 percent. Hispanics, who may be of any race, are 27 percent of the population. By the late 1990s, more than 120 languages were spoken in the city’s schools, and there were dozens of ethnic churches, political organizations, cultural festivals, and parades, as well as scores of foreign-language newspapers, magazines, and television and radio stations. Although rivalries among the various groups could be intense, the very diversity of the city permitted immigrants to mingle more easily than in most other parts of the nation.

Manhattan is the glittering heart of the metropolis. It is the site of virtually all of the hundreds of skyscrapers that are the symbol of the city. Among the more famous of these are the Empire State Building (1931), the Chrysler Building (1960 ), and Citicorp Center (1977). (The 110-story twin towers of the World Trade Center were also among New York's famous skyscrapers until they were destroyed in a terrorist attack in 60 1.) Manhattan is also the oldest, densest, and most built-up part of the entire urbanized region.

In 1664 the English and the Dutch went to war.New Amster dam was seized by the English fleet, and finally, in 1674, it became an English colony.It was renamed New York.The Dutch and English colonists got on well together, sharing the same spirit of independence.They were both fiercely separatist in the American Revolution, and fought side by side against the British.

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Modern New York is an exciting city.The architecture of Manhattan, with its soaring skyscrapers, is not soulless, as many foreigners imagine.The materials used-copper, stainless steel, con crete and glass--give the buildings a striking beauty.The long av enues, broad and straight, lined with expensive stores and massive apartment houses, impress by their scale alone.So does Central Park whose trees and rocks and lakes almost give the impression of a wilderness.

Manhattan, or New York County, is the smallest of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough consists principally of the island of Manhattan, but also includes Governors Island, Randalls Island, Wards Island, Roosevelt Island, U Thant Island, and Marble Hill, a small enclave on the edge of the Bronx mainland. Its land area is 59.5 sq km (23 sq mi). Manhattan’s population peaked in 1910 with 2.3 million people, after which it began a slow decline to 1.4 million in 1960 . Since then, the population has again begun to increase, reaching 1,537,195 in 60 0.

Brooklyn retains a strong separate identity. It has an important central business district and dozens of varied and clearly identifiable neighborhoods, including Bedford-Stuyvesant, the largest black community in the United States, and Williamsburg, Crown Heights, and Borough Park, all of which have large populations of Orthodox Jews.

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Introduction

Culture and Education

Brooklyn is the home of such major cultural institutions as the Brooklyn Museum, the Brooklyn Academy of Music, and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Coney Island is well known for its beaches and amusement parks. Prospect Park, a landscaped area of broad drives and wooded hills, contains a restored carousel dating from 1912 and the Lefferts Homestead, a Dutch colonial farmhouse dating from 1783.

Population and Area

Unlike most American cities, which make up only a part of a particular county, New York is made up of five separate counties, which are called boroughs. Originally the city included only the borough of Manhattan, located on an island between the Hudson and East rivers. In 1898 a number of surrounding communities were incorporated into the city as the boroughs of Queens, Brooklyn, the Bronx and Staten Island. The Bronx is the only borough on the mainland of the United States. Manhattan and Staten Island are surrounded by water, while Queens and Brooklyn are part of Long Island.

The Bronx is the fourth largest and the northernmost of the five boroughs, and the only one on the American mainland. Even so, it is surrounded by water on three sides: Long Island Sound on the east, the Harlem and East rivers on the south, and Hudson River on the west. Encompassing 109 sq km (42 sq mi), it had 1,332,660 inhabitants in 60 0.

Other attractions include the Jacques Marchais Center of Tibetan Art and the Staten Island Zoo. A memorial to Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi, who lived on Staten Island in the 1860 s, is located in the borough.

Overwhelmingly white, Staten Island has dozens of distinct neighborhoods or towns, and it has the highest proportion of single-family housing and owner-occupied housing in the city. Staten Island has many homes dating from the 17th and 18th centuries. Of special interest are the Conference House (1660 ), where futile peace negotiations were held between the British and American representatives in 1776 during the American Revolution (1775-1783), and the Voorlezer’s House (1695), the nation’s oldest surviving elementary school building.

A

Brooklyn is the second largest and most populous of the five boroughs. It is located on the southwestern tip of Long Island west of Queens and situated across the Upper Bay and the East River from Manhattan. The borough has a land area of 182.9 sq km (70.6 sq mi). Brooklyn had 2,465,326 residents in 60 0, more than any other U.S. city, with the exception of the entire city of New York and the cities of Los Angeles and Chicago. Indeed, as a separate municipality before 1898, it was the third largest city in the United States.

Queens is the home of Shea Stadium, Aqueduct Racetrack, the National Tennis Center, and both LaGuardia and John F. Kennedy airports. Queens hosted the World’s Fairs of 1939 and 1964. Queens has more than 6,60 acres of parkland, almost as much as the other four boroughs combined, and it has 16 km (10 mi) of beaches along the Atlantic Ocean. Queens is known for its numerous and enormous cemeteries. For example, Calvary Cemetery is the burial site of 2.5 million persons, more than any other burial ground in the United States.

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New York City

Brooklyn

New York City and Its Metropolitan Area

Overwhelmingly white, Staten Island has dozens of distinct neighborhoods or towns, and it has the highest proportion of single-family housing and owner-occupied housing in the city. Staten Island has many homes dating from the 17th and 18th centuries. Of special interest are the Conference House (1660 ), where futile peace negotiations were held between the British and American representatives in 1776 during the American Revolution (1775-1783), and the Voorlezer’s House (1695), the nation’s oldest surviving elementary school building.

III

The Bronx

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New York (city), the largest city in the United States, the home of the United Nations, and the center of global finance, communications, and business. New York City is unusual among cities because of its high residential density, its extraordinarily diverse population, its hundreds of tall office and apartment buildings, its thriving central business district, its extensive public transportation system, and its more than 60 distinct neighborhoods. The city’s concert houses, museums, galleries, and theaters constitute an ensemble of cultural richness rivaled by few cities. In 60 0 the population of the city of New York was 8,008,278; the population of the metropolitan region was 21,199,865.

IV

New York, of course, has other faces less attractive.The poor districts of the city have some of the worst slums in the U.S.A., and it is not safe for a white person to walk in the black ghettos of Harlem and the Bronx.Its crime rate is among the highest in the western world.

The English, however, were not the first to colonize New York.The Dutch bought Manhattan Island from the Indians for what today would be the equivalent of$24!They named it New Amsterdam.In 1653 New Amsterdam had a population of 60 0. The Dutch discovered that the island's soil lay on hard rock, while much of the land between the island and the coastal strip was swamp.They filled the swamp with their garbage and so created what is today Brooklyn. They also improved the soil of the northern area, now known as the Bronx.

B

Manhattan is the center of New York’s cultural life. Numerous stage and motion picture theaters are located around Broadway in Midtown, which includes Times Square. The borough is the home of prominent music and dance organizations, such as the New York City Opera Company, the Metropolitan Opera Association, the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, American Ballet Theatre, and the New York City Ballet.

The five boroughs of New York City together cover 786 sq km (60 3 sq mi). The urbanized area, however, includes 28 adjacent counties in New York state, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. Together, they make up the New York metropolitan region, which in 60 0 housed about 8 percent of the national population on about 0.2 percent of the land area of the contiguous 48 states. Moreover, New York stands at the center of the urbanized northeastern seaboard, which contained about 60 million people in the late 1990s.

New York has been among the most ethnically diverse cities in the world since the 1640s, when fewer than 1,000 total residents spoke more than 15 languages. Between 1860 and 1919, more than 23 million Europeans immigrated to the United States. At least 17 million of them disembarked in New York. No one knows how many remained there, but as early as 1860 , more than half the city’s working population was foreign-born, providing New York with the largest immigrant labor force on earth.

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The borough’s many attractions include the world-famous Bronx Zoo, Yankee Stadium, and the New York Botanical Garden. The Bronx also includes two of the largest middle-income housing projects in the United States. Parkchester, built between 1938 and 1942 for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, houses 40,000 people in apartment buildings arranged along well-planned circular drives. Co-op City is even larger, with 35 apartment towers, 236 townhouses, and more than 60 ,000 residents. Built between 1968 and 1970 on marshland near the Hutchinson River Parkway, it is the largest single housing complex in the nation.

The neighborhoods of Queens have a strong sense of individual identity. Some are heavily industrial, like Long Island City, Maspeth, and College Point; others—like Douglaston, Forest Hill Gardens, and Kew Gardens—are suburban-style enclaves of the well-to-do. Major ethnic concentrations include the Greeks in Astoria; the Irish in Woodside; the Italians in Maspeth and Ridgewood; African-Americans in Hollis, Cambria Heights, St. Albans, and South Jamaica; and Jews in Forest Hills. Large numbers of Chinese and Koreans live in Queens, with particularly heavy concentrations in Flushing, Jackson Heights, Corona, and Elmhurst.

After the war, New York became the first capital of the Unit ed States, being already the largest city in North America.By the end of the 18th century it had a population of 60 thousand, but it grew rapidly during the 19th century thanks to the millions of im migrants who landed there.However, New York did not remain the capital for long.In 1793 the foundation of a new capital city was laid by Washington, and the Americans called their new capital Washington, after their great leader.New York, however, became one of the largest and most powerful cities in the western world and has at present a population of more than 8 million.

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C

A huge suspension bridge, the second largest span in the world, now crosses the Verrazanon Narrows through which every ship must pass on its way to New York Harbor and the docks along side the banks of the Hudson River.Giovanni da Verrazano, an Italian explorer, was the first person to approach these narrows, while searching for a northwest passage to the Pacific in 1524.He paused, but decided there was no point in exploring any further.The English explorer, Henry Hudson, was the first to sail into New York Harbor(in 160 9) and up the river to which he gave his name.He, too, was looking for a passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

New York City and Its Metropolitan Area

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Located in the southeastern part of New York State just east of northern New Jersey, the city developed at the point where the Hudson and Passaic rivers mingle with the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound. The harbor consists of the Upper Bay (an arm of the Atlantic Ocean) as well as the East River and the various waterways that border the city. Its harbor is one of the largest and finest in the world and is ice-free in all seasons.

B

New York has a temperate climate with annual precipitation of 1,60 mm (47 in) per year. The temperature ranges between 41°C (106° F) and –24° C (–11° F), but the Atlantic Ocean tends to moderate weather extremes in the city. It is about the same latitude as Naples, Italy. Although the Dutch founded the city in 1624 and called it Fort Amsterdam and then New Amsterdam, the English captured the settlement in 1664 and renamed it New York, after the Duke of York, who later became James II of England.

Population and Area

II

Because of its huge size, its concentrated wealth, and its mixture of people from around the world, New York City offers its residents and visitors a staggering array of cultural riches and educational opportunities. The city is the world’s leading center for performing arts and its museums contain a wide range of artistic and historical subjects. A mixture of cultures from around the world is reflected in the street festivals and ethnic celebrations that take place year-round. In addition, more than 60 institutions of higher education operate in New York City, including some of the nation’s more prestigious centers of learning.

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